Cropping Scheme definition
1.Such a scheme according to which crops are grown in different plots of a farm to get maximum yield without reducing the soil fertility, is called cropping scheme.
2.The plan according to which crops are raised on individual plots of a farm with an object of getting the maximum returns from each crop without imparting the soil fertility, is called cropping scheme.
To keep fertility of the land and get maximum yield are the main focus point of the cropping scheme.
Generally three or four year cropping plans or schemes are made, that is, it is decided that which crop is to be grown in which field in the next three or four years.
Characteristics of a good Cropping Scheme
There are following characteristics should be of a good cropping scheme-
- Each year the area under different crops should be approximately equal.
- For each crop rotation included in the cropping scheme, the same number of fields should be protected as the number of crop rotations of the year.
- The plots included in one crop rotation should be of the same size.
- The cropping scheme should be made in such a way that necessary food grains and other necessary things like oilseeds, cotton and vegetables are included to meet the personal needs of the farmer and necessary quantity of fodder, grain can be grown for the animals also.
- While including crops in the cropping scheme, it should be kept in mind that what facilities are available for sale of the produce. For example, there is more facility for sale of sugarcane in the areas adjacent to sugarcane mill, so more area of sugarcane can be kept.
- In order to maintain soil fertility, leguminous crops must be include in the cropping scheme.
- If the farm is 50 hectares or less, then 8-10% and if the farm is more than 50 hectares then 5% area is kept for layout.
- If the farm is close to the city, grow vegetables in 60% of the net cultivated area.
- If the farm is near to sugarcane mill, then grow sugarcane in 60% of the net cultivated area.
- If the farm is near the canning factory, grow peas or tomatoes in 60% of the net cultivated area.
- In addition to fodder on the dairy farm, grow oilseeds and leguminous crops in 10-15% of the area.
- Grow onion and potato in areas where cold storages are near.
- Grow vegetables and flowers near national highways and railway lines.
Points to be remember while preparing a Cropping Scheme
The following points should remember while preparing a cropping scheme-
- Irrigation facility
- Type of soil
- Availability of seed
- Availability of manure and fertilizers
- Needs of farmer
- Demand of the market
- Facilities of the conveyance
- Availability of labour
- Nearness of the sugarmill
- Special features of the locality
Preparation of a cropping scheme
The cropping plan or scheme for a farm is prepared as follows-
Details of the form
- Total area of the farm (in hectare)
- 5-10% of the farm area is left for drains, farm building and roads, So the area left for the layout of the farm (In hectare).
- Net cultivated area of the farm (in hectare).
- Distance of nearest market from the farm.
- What is the type of land and whether it has any special problem like waste land, water logging etc.
- What are the means of irrigation and are they such that one can depend on it.
- Is there enough manure available on the farm to apply to the crops.
Example of Cropping Scheme
Example 1: To prepare a cropping scheme for a farm which is located in Ghaziabad area in Uttar Pradesh. The entire area of the farm is 15 hectares, out of which only 14 hectares are cultivated, the land is of loamy and sandy loam type. Apart from a tubewell for irrigation, irrigation facility is also available from canal. Prepare a cropping scheme for this farm and also find the cropping intensity.
A) Details of the farm
- Location of the form – Ghaziabad area
- Total area of the farm – 15 ha.
- Area left for layout of the farm – 1 hectare
- Net cultivated area of the farm – 14 ha.
- Types of soil of the farm – loamy and Sandy loam
- Irrigation facility – Tube-well and canal
B) suitable crop rotation for the area
- Green manure- wheat, cotton, sugarcane – (3 yrs)
- Sorghum-Pea, cotton-Late wheat – (2 yrs)
- Maize- potato-onion – (1 yr)
- Paddy-berseem – (1 yr)
- Sorghum-Gram, Maize-Potato – (2 yrs)
- Okra-Cauliflower, Brinjal-Tomato (2 yrs)
C) Area under different crops
|Sn. No.||Ravi crops||Area (in ha.)||Sn. No.||Kharif crops||Area (in ha.)|
Total sown area = 11+10 = 21 hectare
∴ Cropping Intensity = Total cropped are in a year / Net cultivated area * 100
∴ Cropping Intensity = 21 / 14 * 100 = 150%
Note- The area of green manure is not included in the cropping scheme.
Cropping intensity is the ratio between total sown area and net cultivated area in a year, expressed in percentage.
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